Glossary of Terms

Some of the terms in this website may be new to you. We hope this collection of industry terms and phrases may be helpful. Please contact us with any questions. Thank you. 

  • BREAK BULK - the non-containerized, palletized shipment of cargo on ocean going vessels
  • BUTT - the thick end of a shake or shingle, applied with the butt down
  • CCA TREATMENT - pressure impregnated into the cells of the wood prior to shipment, CCA (chromated copper arsenate) is a very effective pesticide and fungicide protecting cedar shingles and shakes against the agents of decay and insect attack
  • CHECK - a split, crack or separation of the wood, usually at the tip of a shingle or shake
  • COURSE - the horizontal layer of shingles or shakes in a bundle or on the roof / wall
  • COVERAGE - the area covered by a bundle of shingles or shakes at a given exposure
  • CRIMPS - the collapse of cells of the wood, usually in kiln dried shingles, resulting in a bent or caved-in appearance
  • CROSS GRAIN - the wood grain runs from the front face of the shingle to the back face within 3", (75mm) of the length of the shingle, in the area 6", (150mm) above the butt.
  • DIAGONAL GRAIN - the wood grain does not run parallel to the edge of the shingles / shakes. It is a defect if it slants more than 2", (50mm) sideways in any 12", (300mm) length.
  • EAVE LINE - the first row of shingles or shakes at the gutter or horizontal edge of a roof, always doubled and sometimes tripled. Also referred to a the "starter row / course"
  • EDGE GRAIN - the wood is split or sawn at right angles to the trees annular growth rings. Also called vertical grain or quarter sawn
  • EXPOSURE - the lower portion of the shake or shingle exposed to the weather
  • EXPOSURE LINE - the line created by the adjoining rows of shingles or shakes
  • FCL - a full container load shipment by ocean vessel - 20ft or 40ft containers
  • FEATHER TIP - an uneven, thinned, feathering of the wood fibre at the tip of a shake or shingle
  • FLAT GRAIN - the wood is split or sawn with the annular growth rings
  • FTL - full truck load shipment over the road or intermodal rail
  • HEARTWOOD - the inner part of the tree not involved in the active life cycle, as opposed to the living sapwood
  • HIP - the convex sloping intersection of two roof sections. The opposite of a valley.
  • LCL - less than container load, palletized and consolidated in containers for ocean shipment
  • PACK (a) - the number of rows or courses in a bundle, i.e. 24" shakes are 9/9 pack - 9 rows on each end of the bundle totalling 18 rows
  • PACK (b) - this term can also refer to how many shakes are packaged in each row in the bundle, i.e. 50% 2-pack means that each bundle will contact 2 shakes per row in half of the rows, while the other 50% will have 3 shakes per row. It is usually used as a measure of quality - indication the average width of the shingles or shakes in the shipment
  • RIDGE - the horizontal peak of a roof
  • ROOF DECK - the main area of the roof. Also referred to as the "field" of the roof
  • ROOF PITCH - also called the slope, refers to the angle of the roof. In North American this is calculated as the ratio of the rise of the roof over the run of the roof, i.e. a roof with a 12 foot rise for every 12 foot run is a 12/12 pitch, or a 45 degree slope
  • SAPWOOD - the outermost band of a tree, located just under the bark, where the sap and nutrients flow in a living tree. Sapwood is generally lighter in colour and more susceptible to decay than heartwood
  • SIDEWALL - the interior or exterior wall covering or cladding
  • TIP - the thin end of a shingle or shake, applied towards the peak of the roof
  • VALLEY - the concave sloping intersection of two roof sections. The opposite of a "hip"